If you took my advice to bring supplies and maybe a tent, it should not be impossible to find the temple within a day. Simply keep your eyes peeled for all of the gates and explore them. With adequate supplies, you can avoid most of the jungle's most inconvenient obstacles. Since the location of the temple may be completely random, there's no point in me giving you a full walkthrough of the jungle. However, I did notice something that MAY be relevant.

The Sims 4 Jungle Adventure: The Temple Entrance